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22.03.2021 | Institute BCN
Comments Off on Hyperpigmentation: causes and treatment

Hyperpigmentation: causes and treatment

Hyperpigmentation appears when an excess of melanin is produced in the skin, which is what gives rise to spots on the skin. It can have various origins, both endogenous (genetic, hormonal, senile, post-inflammatory, metabolic, vascular, etc.) and exogenous (exposure to UV rays, pollution or other external aggressions, taking medications or medical-aesthetic treatments).

Hyperpigmentation appears when an excess of melanin is produced in the skin, which is what gives rise to spots on the skin. It can have various origins, both endogenous (genetic, hormonal, senile, post-inflammatory, metabolic, vascular, etc.) and exogenous (exposure to UV rays, pollution or other external aggressions, taking medications or medical-aesthetic treatments).

Types of hyperpigmentation

  • Melanotic: There is a normal number of melanocytes and an increase in the pigment of the melanocyte. Some aesthetic pathologies:
    • Ephelides (freckles). In most cases these are genetic, and typically appear in the parts of the body most exposed to the sun (phototypes I and II). Melanin increases, although the melanocytes are normal.
    • Solar lentigo. They are hyperpigmentations with a flat, round shape, very small and with a shade between yellowish and dark brown, sometimes even black. They are produced by an excess of production in melanin synthesis. They are in areas exposed to the sun and are stimulated by UV radiation.
    • Melasma. There is a melanin increase as the number of melanocytes increases. It is usually located in the forehead/nose, cheeks, nose, and lower jaw. It is usually caused by a hormonal factor such as pregnancy (second month), estrogens and progestogens, ovarian dysfunction, and thyroid dysfunction, along with solar radiation. Melasma is aggravated by sun exposure.
  • Melanocytic. When there is an increase in the number of melanocytes. For example:
    • Senile lentigo. These are small dark yellow spots that tend towards brown. They appear in large numbers from an adult age, and specifically on the hands and wrists.
  • Non-melanocytic. These are caused by different factors such as tattoos, drugs (minocycline), metals (silver salts), etc. They are produced by a reaction of the skin with solar radiation (especially UV rays) when it meets areas of the skin exposed to these substances.
  • Post-inflammatory hyperchromia. They occur after an acute or chronic inflammation such as eczema, acne and skin trauma of various origins.
  • Endogenous imperfections of vascular origin: Couperose, rosacea, dilated capillaries, or congestive skin…

Tranexamic acid, an excellent active ingredient against hyperpigmentation

One of the most innovative and multifunctional active ingredients on the market in the field of aesthetic pathologies related to spots on the skin of various origins is tranexamic acid. It is a haemostatic agent, a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine that intervenes in the melanin production process and in the release of the vascular and inflammatory component of skin blemishes.

How tranexamic acid works

Tranexamic acid has several effects that influence the staining formation process.

On the one hand, it decreases the activity of tyrosinase, an enzyme on which the melanin synthesis process depends.

It also inhibits plasmin and the binding of plasminogen to keratinocytes. These two actions are what allow the elimination and prevention of hyperpigmentations such as melasma, age spots, freckles, etc.

Lastly, it inhibits vascular factors by reducing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), which results in an action on blood vessel cells. With this action it reduces the excessive vascularization characteristic of some hyperpigmentations: couperose, rosacea, dilated capillaries, or congestive skin, etc.

Tranexamic Acid by Institute BCN, an effective treatment against hyperpigmentation

We have seen the tranexamic acid’s action mechanisms in the body. Let’s see now what results these actions translate into thanks to the treatment of hyperpigmented skin with Institute BCN’s Tranexamic Acid.

  • Due to its depigmenting effect:
    • Eliminates dark skin spots, such as senile spots, lentigines, melasma, contraceptive spots, corticosteroids, spots from exposure to sun or pollution, etc.
    • Corrects photoaging.
    • Prevents the appearance of hyperpigmentation such as melasma.
    • Reduces darkness in brownish dark circles.
    • Removes blemishes resulting from inflammation and other lesions, such as acne.
  • Due to its vasoconstrictor effect:
    • Reduces the reddish tone of blood vessels: corrects and prevents rosacea and couperose.
  • Also:
    • Evens out the skin tone to make it more homogeneous.
    • Lightens the skin with some types of hyperpigmentation.
    • Brightens the skin complexion.

In summary, Tranexamic Acid by Institute BCN helps to reduce and prevent the appearance of hyperpigmentation and improves the appearance of both tough dark spots and translucent reddish spots on superficial blood vessels. The benefits of Tranexamic Acid application can be observed, therefore, in multiple aesthetic pathologies, from melasma, solar lentigos or senile hyperkeratosis to rosacea, through post-acne marks or those derived from certain aesthetic treatments.

In all cases, Institute BCN’s Tranexamic Acid achieves a unique depigmenting, whitening and mattifying effect that restores uniformity and luminosity to the skin, making it currently one of the leading lighteners for blemished skin.

MesoBlanche®, the perfect complement for professional treatment

Within the BCN Pre & Post line, which has the dual objective of preparing the skin for professional treatment and maintaining and improving results after it, we find the MesoBlanche® depigmenting cream. Due to its composition and effects, it is the perfect complement to professional treatment with Tranexamic Acid.

MesoBlanche® combines different active agents that act on the natural pigmentation cycle of the skin, providing a uniform complexion with a luminous appearance.

Its main active ingredients are kojic acid, watercress extract, rumex occidentalis extract, natural AHAs extract, niacinamide, zinc, lupinus albus and sun protection factor SPF30.

Specific benefits of MesoBlanche®:

  • Gently exfoliates dead cells with accumulated pigment.
  • Prepares the skin to promote the penetration of highly lightening substances.
  • Interferes the synthesis of melanin to reduce and prevent the appearance of pigmentation.
  • Improves cell renewal by activating skin respiration and oxygenation.
  • Gives sun protection against the effects of UV rays.
  • Reduces irritation and soothes the skin through plant extracts.